“One key to successful leadership is continuous personal change. Personal change is a reflection of our inner growth and empowerment.”— Robert E. Quinn
Change is an inescapable and uninterrupted feature of both social and organizational life to which we are subject in one form or another (Mullins 2013). There are several factors that forces people to change from an organization, which includes; unpredictable economic conditions, political interests, insufficiency of natural resources, rivalry from within the organization et cetera (Mullins 2013). But there could even be changes due to natural ageing processes like deterioration of machinery, buildings or staff retirement. However, there are people who are resistant to organizational changes. Some remain in the position they were until they get money which they consider to be of prior importance. Whereas for some, the impression of low-adaptability is one of the factors which tend to devote in separation or withdrawal of some from operation learning programs as they feel inferior to advanced situations (Sasikala and Anthonyraj 2015). Moreover, the competency among people with tremendous emotional intelligence, fear of unknown and previous contracts also creates resistance (Mullins 2013).
Fig 1: Change Management
(Source: Linkedin 2016)
What could be the roles adopted by managers to overcome and escape resistance to change?
Favorable management of change is apparently crucial for extended economic performance and competitiveness. For this purpose, the following aspects can be considered:
- Better education and communication about the strategies and target of the organization in order to persuade understanding and responsibility (Jacoby 2011).
- Managers can encounter resistance by contributing incentives and rewards to workers which could encourage them to be more productive (Jacoby 2011).
- Being supportive by preparing guidance in modern skills, offering employees time off after stringent period or simply by hearing and maintaining emotional backing (Kotter and Schlesinger 2008).
One of the fundamental models in understanding organizational change was advanced by Kurt Lewin in the 1950’s known as Unfreeze-Change-Refreeze (TALMACIU, 2014). Within the literature, one of the best prominent prospect established as ‘planned approaches’ to transformation is that of Lewin which was endorsed for many years as the prevalent model for understanding the procedure of organizational change (Chow 2014).
Despite its reputation, the framework has been denounced for being positioned to meager scale specimen, and predominantly the matter that it is based on presumptions that institutions perform under perpetual conditions which can be taken into discussion and prepared for (Barnard and Stoll 2010). Todnem (2005) proposed that this model provides extra focus on ‘change willingness and promotion for change’ than for arranging definite pre-prepared steps for every innovative program and initiative.
Fig 2: Lewin’s model of change
(Source: McNamara 2016)
Facebook as everyone is aware of is one of the top social networking sites which help connecting people all over the globe 24/7 with over 1.49 monthly active users(in 2015) (Noyes 2015). There were certain problems faced by the employees of Facebook which includes attitude and absence of professionalism at the company (Kinder 2013). In order to resolve this problem, Mark Zuckerberg adopted steps to identify the problem. The complaints included lengthy working hours, lack of privacy and focus and destitute attitude of superiors (Kinder 2013). In respect to the complaints, Mark Zuckerberg tried to collect data by communicating to them about the issue [Unfreeze stage]. By analyzing the complaints, Zuckerberg realized that a change was essential for the employee satisfaction. He tried motivating them with praises and rewards for their hard work, empowered them with a freedom to speak and make decisions by being transparent, created a friendly environment for work and rearranged rules within the organization for better employee gratification (Wagner 2014). After the implementation of these strategies, feedback sessions were conducted regularly to evaluate employee satisfaction and arranged group meetings to share and discuss new and attractive ideas [Refreeze] (Arthur 2014).
The video below will provide a short summary on what actually change management is and what steps are to be adopted by the organization and managers to keep a sound and effective working environment for employees.
Video 1: What is change management?
(Source: Wedell 2011)
Change management encompasses considerate planning and responsive implementation, deliberation and involvement of people distressed by transitions. Problems arise if change is forced into someone. It has to be reasonable, attainable and measurable (Paton and McCalman 2008). I believe the best methods to manage change is through motivation which could either be recognition for hard work, responsibility and permission or feel of enjoyment and challenge. According to the Tesco’s Motivational Case study, motivation was considered to be an important factor. Tesco applied the motivational framework’s (Taylor’s motivational theory, Mayo effect and Maslow and Herzberg) which resulted in better production, acceptance of abilities, achievements, Psychological contract (specifies relationship between employer and his employee) and potential progress as, employees are motivated by various factors (Businesscasestudies 2016). This case study thus evidences that employee motivation is a predominant factor.
The manner in which leaders lead or confront change, the style on how they enlist their staff, decides the conditions of the organization that either supports trust and modernization or bolsters rigidity and defiance to change (Winn 2013).
Arthur, C. (2014). Facebook emotion study breached ethical guidelines, researchers say. [online] the Guardian. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/jun/30/facebook-emotion-study-breached-ethical-guidelines-researchers-say [Accessed 22 Mar. 2016].
Barnard, M. and Stoll, N. (2010). Organisational Change Management: A rapid literature review. [online] cubec. Available at: http://www.bristol.ac.uk/media-library/sites/cubec/migrated/documents/pr1.pdf [Accessed 22 Mar. 2016].
Businesscasestudies (2016). Introduction – Motivational theory in practice at Tesco – Tesco | Tesco case studies, videos, social media and information | Business Case Studies. [online] Available at: http://businesscasestudies.co.uk/tesco/motivational-theory-in-practice-at-tesco/introduction.html#axzz43hae96V5 [Accessed 22 Mar. 2016].
Carter McNamara, Odc2-scc-nnu.wikispaces (2016). ODC2-SCC-NNU – 10 Org. Change Mgmt. [online] Available at: http://odc2-scc-nnu.wikispaces.com/10+Org.+Change+Mgmt [Accessed 17 Mar. 2016].
Chow, A. (2014). Leading Change and the Challenges of Managing a Learning Organisation in Hong Kong. Journal of Management Research, [online] 6(2), pp.23-25. Available at: http://www.macrothink.org/journal/index.php/jmr/article/view/5147/4199 [Accessed 22 Mar. 2016].
Jacoby, J. (2011). Strategies for Managing Resistance to Change. [online] Emergent Journal. Available at: http://blog.emergentconsultants.com/2011/04/05/strategies-for-managing-resistance-to-change/ [Accessed 21 Mar. 2016].
Kinder, L. (2013). Facebook employees reveal the worst things about working for the social network. [online] Telegraph.co.uk. Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/facebook/10282682/Facebook-employees-reveal-the-worst-things-about-working-for-the-social-network.html [Accessed 22 Mar. 2016].
Linkedin (2016). Change Management | LinkedIn. [online] Available at: https://www.linkedin.com/topic/change-management [Accessed 20 Mar. 2016].
Mullins, L. (2013). Management and Organisational Behaviour. 10th ed. FT Publishing International, p.711. [Accessed 20 Mar. 2016].
Mullins, L. (2013). Management and Organisational Behaviour. 10th ed. FT Publishing International, pp.711,712 [Accessed 20 Mar. 2016].
Mullins, L. (2013). Management and Organisational Behaviour. 10th ed. FT Publishing International, pp.716-718 [Accessed 20 Mar. 2016].
Noyes, A. (2015). Top 20 Facebook Statistics – Updated October 2015. [online] Zephoria Inc. Available at: https://zephoria.com/top-15-valuable-facebook-statistics/ [Accessed 22 Mar. 2016].
Paton, R. and McCalman, J. (2008). Change management: A guide to effective implementation. [online] Google. Available at: https://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=HA0FQOWx8ngC&oi=fnd&pg=PR5&dq=bbc+change+management+case+study&ots=DUxnYmRn5b&sig=Eb9Ocm225Wap15uTlb3LKR8XTdo#v=onepage&q&f=false [Accessed 22 Mar. 2016].
P.Kotter, J. and A. Schlesinger, L. (2008). Choosing Strategies for Change. [online] web.a.ebscohost.com. Available at: http://web.a.ebscohost.com/bsi/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=36eecb18-5e11-4062-b2ba-69a1ea2b36b8%40sessionmgr4004&vid=33&hid=4001 [Accessed 21 Mar. 2016].
Sasikala, S. and Anthonyraj, S. (2015). Self-Efficacy, Emotional Intelligence And Organizational Commitment In Relation To Resistance To Change Among Employees. [online] http://web.a.ebscohost.com/. Available at: http://web.a.ebscohost.com/bsi/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=36eecb18-5e11-4062-b2ba-69a1ea2b36b8%40sessionmgr4004&vid=27&hid=4001 [Accessed 20 Mar. 2016].
TALMACIU, I. (2014). Comparative Analysis of Different Models of Organizational Change. Valahian Journal of Economic Studies, [online] 5(4), pp.77-86. Available at: http://web.a.ebscohost.com/bsi/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=01814e68-2376-4252-af23-1d3807b00344%40sessionmgr4003&vid=6&hid=4107 [Accessed 20 Mar. 2016].
Wagner, K. (2014). 8 Ways Facebook Changed the World. [online] Mashable. Available at: http://mashable.com/2014/02/04/facebook-changed-the-world/#GTjj93NbNmqF [Accessed 22 Mar. 2016].
Wedell, G. (2011). What is CHANGE MANAGEMENT?. [online] youtube. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=__IlYNMdV9E [Accessed 22 Mar. 2016].