“No man will make a great leader who wants to do it all himself or get all the credit for doing it”- Andrew Carnegie.
What do you want to be? A leader or a manager?
The evolution of positive psychology has driven to heightened attention in the definite constructs of employee well-being, one of which is work management (Cunningham, Salomone and Wielgus 2015). In this blog we’ll be discussing about some of such leadership and management styles and approaches to administer subordinates. Also, by the end of this blog, readers can think and evaluate on whether they want to be a leader or a manager.
There could be different ways of looking and interpreting the meaning of leadership. But virtually it is ‘a relationship through which one person influences the behavior or actions of other people’ (Mullins 2013: 369). Whereas, management is ‘the process through which efforts of members of the organization are co-ordinated, directed and guided towards the achievement of organizational goals (Mullins 2013: 369).
Fig 1: Similarities of Leadership and Management
(Source: Hatherly 2011)
What are the similarities between Leadership and Management?
The few resemblances between Leadership and management are; they encompass working with people, initiate organizational and functional structures, implicate influence and are anxious with ultimate goal achievement and resource allocation (Maccoby 2000).
Although both terms are used correspondingly, management is frequently viewed as describing to people working within an organized firm and with arbitrary roles, in order to accomplish stated organizational objectives (Toor 2011). The significance of leadership depends on interpersonal behavior in an extensive context. It is often correlated with the eagerness and responsible behavior of followers (Mullins 2013: 424). The differences include:
Fig 2: Difference between a Leader and Manager
(Source: Callcentrehelper 2015)
- Leaders access their tasks by directly looking at problems and by formulating new creative results (Toor 2011). They are also facilitative and risk-taking people (Dalakoura 2009). However, managers approach their tasks by creating strategies, guidelines and schemes to generate teams and ideas that incorporate to run smoothly and are involved in decision making and are risk-averse (based on British Navy) (Young and Dulewicz 2008).
Further differences can be understood through watching the video below by Scott Williams;
(Source: Williams 2011)
For better understanding, let’s look at Tuckman and Jenson framework (Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing).
The theory was published by Dr.Bruce Tuckman in 1965 which is a dignified and constructive interpretation for team progress, behavior, accepting and managing groups (Rickards and Moger 2000).
Fig 3: Tuckman and Jenson Framework
(Source: C228online.wikispaces 2016)
The brochure citing this model is comprehensive. Conferring to a Google scholar search by Denise A. Bonebright (2008), Tuckman (1965) was quoted in 1196 articles and Tuckman and Jensen (1977) were mentioned in 544 articles. Based on the volume of citations, attempts were made to find how theories were used in current academic and business literature (Bonebright 2010). Richard and Mooger (2000) criticized that the theory lacks an exhaustive explanation of how groups differ over time and is unsuccessful in explaining the effects of team advancement on inventiveness in problem solving.
However, by applying this framework, let’s examine the case study named “The team that wasn’t” by Suzy Wetlaufer.
Forming- Eric (director of strategy at FireArt, Inc., a provincial glass manufacturer) wanted an effective team and thus tried getting to know people like Ray LaPierre (who generally did not speak much around the executives, mentioning his lack of education), Maureen Turner (who always complained that the firm lacked appreciating artists) et cetera. Even after three meetings, Eric failed getting everybody on the corresponding side of an issue. Eric prepares agenda for each meeting and tries keeping conversation on track, but, Randy (FireArt’s appealing director of sales and marketing) constantly found ways to disturb the system exhibiting the Storming side. Every members were given chance to express their thoughts which if good were discussed, encouraged and bought to norms. A team with good mix of skills and experience were formed but the performing aspect was weak since members were unaware on how was each wanted to provide and their responsibilities as Eric did not recognize and address them (Wetlaufer 1994).
According to my perspective, democratic leadership styles could be one of the most effective styles for managing subordinates as; it is a style where the focus of power and interactions are higher within groups (Mullins 2013; 377). Here, leadership functions are shared to members and they have higher say in decision making, policy and procedure persistence and managers are more part of teams (MALOS 2012). I would like to be led by Franklin Delano Roosevelt (United States ex-president). He generated organizations and programs to help American workers in discovering jobs which helped pull out depression. It was the distribution of ideas and involvement of people in problem solving and decisions that made him a democratic leader (Bbc 2014).
Leading and managing are two contrasting ways of organizing people (Ratcliffe 2013). The conception of leadership styles and approaches could vary according to circumstances, individual characteristics and have equal advantages and disadvantages. In countries like India and China, people mostly like to be led and monitored by professionals. Whereas, in European countries, people dislike being monitored consistently, rather, everyone takes individual initiative and responsibility towards their target (Trends 2011). Managers need to know what are the preferred learning styles and strengths of each individual team member and the triggers that activate those strengths (Buckingham 2005).
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